Imidacloprid (IMD) is the most widely used neonicotinoid insecticide found on environmental surfaces and in water. Analysis of surface-bound IMD photolysis products was performed using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transfer infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS), direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS), and transmission FTIR for gas-phase products. Photolysis quantum yields (ϕ) for loss of IMD were determined to be (1.6 ± 0.6) × 10–3 (1s) at 305 nm and (8.5 ± 2.1) × 10–3 (1s) at 254 nm.
This study determined the toxicity of imidacloprid and thiacloprid to five species of soil invertebrates: earthworms (Eisenia andrei), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus), Collembola (Folsomia candida), oribatid mites (Oppia nitens) and isopods (Porcellio scaber). Tests focused on survival and reproduction or growth, after 3–5 weeks exposure in natural LUFA 2.2 standard soil. Imidacloprid was more toxic than thiacloprid for all species tested. F. candida and E.
In this study, effects of two neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and dinotefuran, on aquatic insect assemblages were evaluated in experimental rice mesocosms. During the 5-month period of the rice-growing season, residual concentrations of imidacloprid were 5–10 times higher than those of dinotefuran in both soil and water. Imidacloprid treatment (10 kg/ha) reduced significantly the populations of, Crocothemis servilia mariannae and Lyriothemis pachygastra nymphs, whereas those of Orthetrum albistylum speciosum increased slightly throughout the experimental period.
South Otago Forest & Bird is staging a "yellow-eyed penguins in crisis" march in Balclutha next week. Members will be taking to the South Otago town's main street footpath on Thursday, to highlight the plight of the nationally endangered species. The rate of population decline in coastal Otago and the Catlins indicated the yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) would disappear by 2060, or sooner, South Otago Forest & Bird chairman Roy Johnstone said.
Sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are iconic birds in the West — including in Washington, Oregon and Idaho. But their numbers in 11 states have dramatically declined with their loss of habitat. It’s difficult to know exact sage grouse population numbers. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimates somewhere between 200,000 to 500,000 sage grouse live across the range — a number conservation groups worry will now continue to decline.
Argentina is the birthplace of tango, an iconic dance style dating back to the 1880s. Long before the first tango steps were taken, however, another dance was already in full swing across parts of Patagonia: the hypnotic grooves of the hooded grebe (Podiceps gallardoi). That dance is still going on today, as you can see in "Tango in the Wind," a new documentary about hooded grebes. Yet despite their impressive moves, the hooded grebes' dance is increasingly in danger of disappearing.
It is hard to believe now, but red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica)- the bird that is synonymous with heather moorland and the Glorious Twelfth of August - were once spotted in Leeds. It was after a severe January snowstorm back in the 1880s when, according Thomas Hudson Nelson’s The Birds of Yorkshire (1907) “large packs of birds came down into the lowlands.” Others were seen around the villages of Arthington and Weeton in Lower Wharfedale. As many as 500 of them were counted in one day, and a decade later similar hard weather forced them to scratch for food in fields around Harrogate.
Imidacloprid is being blamed for the deaths of native birds in Victoria. Lab results obtained by the ABC confirm that the chemical, which is used as an insecticide, killed at least 12 birds near Horsham last month. The same chemical has been banned in Europe because of concerns it is behind a dramatic decline in bee populations.
For the past several winters, conservationist Cary Hamel has held his breath, hoping an endangered species of butterfly will emerge from cocoons in the summer. When the Poweshiek skipperling butterfly (Oarisma poweshiek) emerged again this year near Vita, Hamel was relieved, despite estimates that say there are fewer than 100 left in Canada. The small winged creature is orange and black, but not patterned in the eye-catching way of other butterflies.
Individually, insects are not incredibly interesting, unless you get down on the ground or view them under a microscope to look at their complexity. But they are the invisible force working throughout the world to keep it running. There are 1.4 billion insects for each one of us. Insects are “the lever pullers of the world,” says David MacNeal, author of Bugged. They do everything from feeding us to cleaning up waste to generating $57 billion for the U.S. economy alone. Almonds in California or watermelons in Florida wouldn’t be available if it were not for bees.